Today sees the publication of the OECD's annual Education At A Glance report. This is a huge document, comparing a mass of information on education provision in dozens of different countries, from preschool right up to University level.
The full report can be downloaded here, though you'd be forgiven for heading straight for the summary version. In addition, there's an United Kingdom Country Note available, which provides a shorter analysis of education in the UK, and how it compares to other countries. Or for simple information on the headlines generated by the research, try looking at this Guardian article or this BBC article.
For further information about education systems in different countries, the Eurydice and International Bureau of Education sites are well worth a visit.